I wrote and published a quadtree crate for Rust. It is published on and has docs on

What is a quadtree?

A quadtree is a tree data structure in which each internal node has exactly four children. Quadtrees are the two-dimensional analog of octrees and are most often used to partition a two-dimensional space by recursively subdividing it into four quadrants or regions. The data associated with a leaf cell varies by application, but the leaf cell represents a “unit of interesting spatial information”. - Wikipedia

What is a quadtree good for?

For graphics, visualization, and other applications which require spatial information at a variable density, quadtrees are a good solution to the problem of storing high-density location data without paying the cost of uniformly high-density partitioning. As always, a picture says a thousand words:

Why did I write a quadtree library?

I found a number of quadtree implementations on Some of them were simply too outdated to work with modern Rust, some of them were too gamedev-specific, and some were beyond my needs.

Specifically, I wanted to be able to

  • insert both points and regions,
  • insert mutliple overlapping regions in 2d space,
  • query by object handle and mutate the value (but not the location) in-place, and
  • later query a region and find all intersecting results.

No library I found supported all these requirements.


The solution implemented in quadtree_rs makes a few compromises.

First, value/region associations are cheap to insert, cheap to query, and expensive to delete. This is ideal for gamedev, where a 2d map is constructed once and then rendered frequently (such as on a per-frame basis).

Second, regions are stored directly at the levels which describe them.

Here is what I mean: in a quadtree with buckets (such as that illustrated in the Wikipedia article, points are bucketed, i.e a single node can have up to n values before it is subdivided. (In the illustration, that bucket size appears to be one.)

In the quadtree_rs implementation, a handle (a key in some hashmap which points to the user-inserved value) is inserted at multiple points in the quadtree.

Insert operations

Let’s walk through inserting some points and regions to explore the design of quadtree_rs.

Inserting a point

Associating a value with a point, which is represented by a region with dimensions 1x1, means traversing the full height of the quadtree.

Let’s initialize a quadtree which covers the square region between $(0, 0)$ and $(4, 4)$. The left column will be a tree respresentation, the middle column will be a graphical representation, and the right column will be the data store.

tree                      graphical             data store
====                      =========             ==========

(0,0)->4x4                +---+---+---+---+
                          |               |
                          +               +
                          |               |
                          +               +
                          |               |
                          +               +
                          |               |

Now let’s insert the value 'a' at the point $(0, 0)$. In quadtree_rs, points are regions with dimensions 1x1.

We subdivide the quadtree twice. Inserting a point means traversing the full depth of the tree.

If the quadtree were of depth n, the width and height of the region would be 2^n, and inserting a point would require n traversal steps.

We first insert 'a' into the data store, returning the handle 001. We then insert 001 at each node in the tree which is wholly enclosed in the region (0, 0)->1x1.

(0,0)->4x4                +---+---+---+---+      001 <=> 'a'
  (0,0)->2x2              |001|   |       |
    (0,0)->1x1 [001]      +---+   +       +
                          |       |       |
                          +---+---+       +
                          |               |
                          +               +
                          |               |

Inserting a convenient region

Now let’s insert the value 'b' at a rectangular region anchored at $(0, 0)$ with dimensions 2x2.

We first insert 'b' into the data store, returning the handle 002. We then insert 002 at each node in the tree which is wholly enclosed in the region (0, 0)->2x2.

(0,0)->4x4                +---+---+---+---+      001 <=> 'a'
  (0,0)->2x2 [002]        |001|   |       |      002 <=> 'b'
    (0,0)->1x1 [001]      +---+   +       +
                          |    002|       |
                          +---+---+       +
                          |               |
                          +               +
                          |               |

Because there is a node which perfectly describes our insertion region, we only insert the handle 002 once in the tree.

Inserting an inconvenient region

What happens if we insert a region which cannot be wholly described by a leaf node?

Let’s insert the value 'c' at a rectangular region anchored at $(0, 0)$ with dimensions 3x3.

(0,0)->4x4                +---+---+---+---+      001 <=> 'a'
  (0,0)->2x2 [002,003]    |001|   |003|   |      002 <=> 'b'
    (0,0)->1x1 [001]      +---+   +---+---+      003 <=> 'c'
  (0,2)->2x2              |002,003|003|   |
    (0,2)->1x1 [003]      +---+---+---+---+
    (1,2)->1x1 [003]      |003|003|003|   |
  (2,0)->2x2              +---+---+---+---+
    (2,0)->1x1 [003]      |   |   |   |   |
    (2,1)->1x1 [003]      +---+---+---+---+
    (2,2)->1x1 [003]

In the upper-left quadrant, the new region is described by the second-level leaf node at (0,0)->2x2, so the handle (003) is inserted there.

All other quadrants are subdivided until the division in question is either wholly within or without the insertion region.

The handle type is lightweight, copyable, and can be inserted multiple times. A handle type is used so that the actual value need not be copyable.

Schema Conclusions

As a result of our handle-based design, insertion is fast and trivially parallelizable (although that optimization is unimplemented).

Querying means describing the region, deduping the set of handles, and looking up each handle in the data store.

Deleting means describing the region, collecting the set of affected handles, and deleting those handles (and their associated values) from the data store.


There are a few problems with this implementation.

First, areas must have positive, nonzero dimensions. To avoid runtime exceptions, we use the derive_builder pattern to derive an AreaBuilder type, which is somewhat verbose.

Second, coordinate types are subject to integer overflow. A client of this library using u8 types may experience hard-to-debug saturation effects at the boundaries of their quadtree region.

Third, the quadtree requires a block of memory and is subject to frequent reallocation. Thus a client of this library might want to describe the majority of their canvas up-front.


If you use this library (or want to) but it is unsuited for your application, feel free to leave me a github issue. I’m interested in actively maintaining this library.